Several typographical harmonizations are detailed in legend, such as altitudes always on 2 or 3 digits in bold (hundreds of feet) and always in italics (feet).
The philosophy of CartaBossy
Aimed at the VFR pilot needing a map appropriate to the planned route and any other diversion route, the "CartaBossy" at 1: 1,000,000 is well suited for large flights in good weather.
Using international standards, aeronautical layer provides all the necessary information in a format that preserves readability.
Before use, carefully study the legend of the map here.
The general principles of its conception
The chart is printed double-sided on laminated paper. It is virtually tear-proof and waterproof. On the first fold on the front, a mini map shows the geographical extent covered by the map itself, the existing adjacent maps, the values of the magnetic declination, the flight information regions (name of the FIR, ICAO code , frequencies, associated VOLMET). On the back, the legend is immediately accessible.
An aide memoire - to remember everything before the flight - and a summary of the rules of the air occupy empty spaces, while additional information, too difficult to integrate into the map itself, are listed by type and by country (activity schedules of zones, geographical and telephone coordinates of platforms, identification of the track, particularities of the country).
For each zone, the information is indicated directly in the map. The zone will be listed only if there are some interesting things to know. The projection used (conformal conic of Lambert with two secant parallels) allows a better respect of the scale on the whole of the map. The grid of meridians and parallels is graduated minute by minute. To determine without hesitation latitude and longitude of a given quadrangle, graduations and value in degrees are always placed on the side of increasing values.
In VFR travel pilots need free time, available time to anticipate or react to hazards. The map is designed not to consume too much of this time reserve: the respect of the international standards guarantees a fast and persistent familiarization if it is used regularly during the flights, preparation included. The choices made by the designer give priority to clarity and speed of reading, re-assembling the structures if necessary to make them more understandable.
In the vertical plane, the map does not indicate airspaces with a ceiling not exceeding 500 feet AGL or with a floor greater than 18,500 feet (anticipating a future harmonized transition altitude), given the impossibility of flying cruising under 500 feet or above flight level F195.
As a rule, red implies a ban, blue an obligation and green a facilitation.
They are classified according to the possibilities of access and not according to their administrative situation.
The airfield is classified open (symbol with riders) if any pilot holding a valid license can access it without notice with a "standard" aircraft (airplane, ULM). Purple jumpers instead of blues indicate that restrictions can apply to microlights, so it is advisable to study the VAC card for them.
The aerodrome is prohibited (without jumpers, and in red) if the same pilot with the same aircraft can not normally access it.
The airfield is classified open with restrictions (without riders, blue) in other cases. Airfields that can be used only by invitation (private airfield) are included in this class.
The size and shape of the Aerodrome symbol immediately make it possible to detect if the main track is long (large full-blown symbol or medium white background symbol if the track length is less than 1,000 m).
Track and Aerodrome symbols with opposite backgrounds indicate a solid track. A truncated track indicates a terrain with a characteristic "mountain", the track being truncated at the end of landing. A small aerodrome symbol and a text limited to the 4 digits of the index characterize a ULM platform.
The aerodrome tag provides enough information to arrive on unplanned terrain with no other document, which can replace a VAC chart in the event of a diversion. This information is arranged in the order of their use on arrival (line by line, from top to bottom).
- The means of radionavigation:
VOR, DME and other NDBs / Locators are shown on the map (except readability issues). VOR roses are calibrated to magnetic north to the nearest degree and are removed in case of overload.
- The reporting points and itinerary:
All VFR reporting points are shown, except for a few very close entry / exit points and in case of overload.
While all mandatory or recommended transit routes are indicated, there are no arrival or departure routes, most of which are unusable across the map. The magnetic routes given are always at the beginning of the section and the distances (nautical) in the middle. Below the section is the frequency to be used and above, the usable level (s) if necessary.
Some transit routes are proposed in addition by the designer depending on the complexity of the region and the degree of confidence acquired.
Usable in VFR day, it is not surprising the absence of an active zone only night or an area whose ceiling is 500 feet / ground. While navigating at this level, the pilot does not enter the zone and therefore did not need to know it.
The map has been designed with the constant awareness that the pilot needs the simplest possible tool, flight safety requiring a good mind.
Zones are globalized when the basic elements have the same penetration conditions and the same manager. On the contrary, it is sometimes carried out an additional cutting to take account of the plane representation.
The zones P, R and T (temporary reserved areas) are categorized according to their conditions of penetration, prohibited (P), with prior authorization (PPR), authorized with obligation to follow instructions (CTL) and authorized after simple radio contact (RDO). The width of the border is very slightly a function of the floor of the zone (very high floor, smaller width).
The boundaries and frequencies of the flight information areas are directly displayed on the map. In those parts where two sectors overlap, we first list the elements of the lowest sector.
Above 30 + h10 (include the highest of the two levels 3000 ft AMSL or 1000 ft / ground), the VFRs are free to circulate in the same way in classes E and G: the VMC minimums are the same, the radio contact remains optional. In this slice of space, one can afford not to distinguish classes E and G.
Below 30 + h10, in E the VMC minimums remain standard, while in G much lower values (1.5km-0/0) are accepted.
Not to indicate classes E brings a very sensitive gain in readability
This choice has the following consequences:
- a) in the event of a suitable weather (visibility greater than 5 km, clouds above 1.500 m / 1.000 ft), the pilot benefits only (readability, simplification). - b) in case of degraded weather, the VFR is already confined to 30 + h10 (see table VMC). Under h07 there are only CTRs and never of class E (cf ICAO).
Ultimately, the pilot should take into account the presence of a class E space when it is between h07 and 30 + h10 and that the estimated visibility becomes less than 5 km or the cloud distance is less than 1500 / 300m.
It is obvious that the workload in marginal conditions makes it as simple as possible.
- Frequencies VHF com and nav:
These being all between 108 and 137 MHz, the number 1 of the hundreds is invariable and can be omitted (18.05 for 118.05). The 8.33 kHz spaced-apart frequencies are identified by the presence of three digits after the decimal point. Thus the frequency 127.780 to display on your VHF will be indicated 27.780 on the map. And 123,400 simply stated 23.4. This to lighten the map as much as possible and maintain its good readability and removing obvious numbers ...